See a typo? Have a suggestion? Edit this page on Github
Eliezer asked me a few questions about programming yesterday, and I ended up demonstrating a little bit about pattern matching. He then had a lot of fun showing a friend of his how programming works. I may end up giving some lessons to some of my kids' friends in the next few weeks, which should be interesting.
I've started using a minimalistic "kids IDE" I threw together for teaching the kids. It's helped us not worry about details like filepaths, saving, and running in a terminal. It's not a great tool, but good enough. I've included links to better tools in the README, though this fits my needs for the moment.
I've set up AppVeyor to upload Windows executables to S3:
You'll also need to install Stack.
Pattern matching strings
This morning, Eliezer and Gavriella both had their next "official" lesson. I started over with that pattern matching demonstration. First, I showed them this example:
main = do sayNickname "Eliezer" sayNickname "Gavriella" sayNickname "Yakov" sayNickname "Lavi" sayNickname realname = putStrLn (nickname realname) nickname "Eliezer" = "Elie Belly" nickname "Gavriella" = "Galla Galla" nickname "Lavi" = "Fat baby" nickname "Yakov" = "Koko"
They got the basic idea of this. (And I ended up introducing
putStrLn around here as well, which they were fine with.) However,
as I had them typing out some of this on their own, they ended up with
a lot of trouble around capitalization, which was a good introduction
to Haskell's rules around that. We'll see how in a bit.
Pattern matching ints
After establishing that we could pattern match on strings, I switched the code to this:
main = do sayNickname 1 sayNickname 2 sayNickname 3 sayNickname 4 sayNickname realname = putStrLn (nickname realname) nickname 1 = "Elie Belly" nickname "Gavriella" = "Galla Galla" nickname "Lavi" = "Fat baby" nickname "Yakov" = "Koko"
And gave them the challenge to rewrite
nickname so that the code
worked, which wasn't too much of a problem. The misordering of
nickname did cause some confusion,
and then helped them understand better how pattern matching works. (I
didn't intentionally put that in, it somehow slipped in while the kids
were working on rewriting things.)
I asked them what the type of
nickname was, and they said function
(yay!). And then explained to them that you can tell Haskell
explicitly what a thing's type is, and typed this in:
nickname :: ? -> ?
The funny syntax didn't give them too much trouble, and then we got to fill in the question marks. I asked them what the output of the function was, pointing at the string. I was surprised: they said the type was "nickname" or "name." They accepted that it was a string, but they didn't like that. (New theory: humans' brains are naturally strongly typed.)
I then asked what the input was, and they said "number." I hadn't
taught them about
Int yet, and didn't know about integers from math,
so I told them that integer is a kind of number, and that in Haskell
we call it
Int. Filling in the type signature was fine.
I pointed out that some things (like
String) were upper
case, and some were lower case. I pointed out that concrete things
that "actually exist" (maybe not the best terminology) are
capitalized. We know what an
Int is, for example. Variables are
things we don't know yet, and those are lowercase. And finally, you
can put whatever you want inside a string, but it has to match
exactly. That seemed to click fairly well for them.
I pointed out that referring to the kids as numbers isn't good. (He
responded that I actually do call them 1, 2, 4, and 8 sometimes...)
Anyway, I said that a better type for the
nickname function would be
to take a
Child as input. He said "can we say
Child = Int," which
was a great insight. I showed up that, yes, we can do
type Child = Int, but that there's a better way.
I introduced the idea that
data defines a new datatype, and then
data Child = Eliezer | Gavriella | Yakov | Lavi
Gavriella asked "what are those lines?" and I explained they mean "or." Therefore, a child is Eliezer, or Gavriella, or Yakov, or Lavi. They got this.
Exercise: fix the following program, uncommenting the lines in
main = do sayNickname Eliezer --sayNickname Gavriella --sayNickname Yakov --sayNickname Lavi sayNickname realname = putStrLn (nickname realname) data Child = Eliezer | Gavriella | Yakov | Lavi nickname :: Child -> String nickname Eliezer = "Elie Belly" --nickname 2 = "Galla Galla" --nickname 3 = "Fat baby" --nickname 4 = "Koko"
Some caveats where they got stuck:
- Using lower case
Lavi. I got to explain how pattern matching a variable works, and "wildcards." They got this, though still needed to be coached on it.
- I'd been on the fence about including syntax highlighting in the
kids IDE, but it turns out that the different colors of
lavihelped Gavriella realize her mistake. Syntax highlighting is a good thing here.
- I did ultimately have to give her a hint: "Lavi is BIG but you made him small."
I started to try and define
data Person = Kid Child | Adult Parent,
but realized quickly it was too complicated for now and aborted.
I did not teach this well, the children did not get the concepts correctly. However, they did understand the code as I wrote it.
main = print total total = addUp 10 addUp 10 = 10 + addUp 9 addUp 9 = 9 + addUp 8 addUp 8 = 8 + addUp 7 addUp 7 = 7 + addUp 6 addUp 6 = 6 + addUp 5 addUp 5 = 5 + addUp 4 addUp 4 = 4 + addUp 3 addUp 3 = 3 + addUp 2 addUp 2 = 2 + addUp 1 addUp 1 = 1 + addUp 0 addUp 0 = 0
They really hated how repetitive typing that out was, which was
exactly the goal. It was easy to convince them that this was stupid. I
addUp 11 and it broke. They understood why,
and so we started working on something better.
main = print total total = addUp 10 addUp 0 = 0 addUp x = x + addUp (x - 1)
I stepped through the executable of this, complete with pattern matching. Doing this a few times in the future is probably a good idea.
Eliezer asked what happens if we remove the
addUp 0 = 0 case. We
discussed it, he said it wouldn't work, and said it would "keep
going." I told him it was called an infinite loop, and we got a stack
overflow. Good insight.
Gavriella asked how long it took me to learn this stuff. I told her 12 years; after all, I only started learning Haskell in my twenties. It made them feel pretty good that they were learning this stuff earlier than I did.
I gave them an exercise to implement
multTo instead of
didn't understand this, or recursion, and I had to help them through
the whole thing. Mea culpa completely.
Gavriella asked for another exercise:
main = do sayAge Eliezer sayAge Gavriella sayAge Yakov sayAge Lavi data Child = ... sayAge child = print (age child) age ? = ?
She typed something like:
age ? = ? Eliezer=10
I showed her that she needed:
age Eliezer = 10
And then she got the rest just fine, though with a few capitalization mistakes.